How did Hubble change our view of the universe, and how did 30 years of observation lead to a new chapter in astronomy?

2020-06-30

The most powerful optical space telescope to date

Two astronauts replaced the Hubble Space Telescope's gyroscope during the 3A maintenance mission in December 1999.

The Hubble Space Telescope has been a tremendous success, and Hubble's contributions to all areas of astronomy have been recognized by astronomers around the world. The Hubble telescope is the most powerful space telescope ever built, providing wavelength coverage and capabilities that are currently in operation. The Hubble telescope is unmatched by any other optical telescope in the world.

The Hubble telescope has four main advantages over other optical astronomical telescopes in that it has an unprecedented large-range angular resolution. And with an extremely broad spectral coverage from visible and near-infrared light to the far ultraviolet, Hubble can also photograph deep space and achieve High-precision photometry. The Hubble telescope has a wide field of view for imaging and can map cosmic objects and some important structures. In contrast, the field of view of ground-based telescopes is affected by the atmosphere, and ground-based telescopes are incapable of taking ultraviolet and most near-infrared light Observed.

The image is of a supernova explosion structure called 1E 0102.2-7219 in the Little Magellanic Nebula, as photographed by Hubble. Supernova remnant gas and structures in the central position.

Images from the Hubble telescope are 5 to 20 times sharper than those obtained from standard ground-based telescopes. Faced with the vastness of the universe, we are puzzled, and more than that, we are afraid of the unknown, because the universe is so big, even beyond our Imagine, and Hubble's excellent imaging capabilities seem to have brought us closer to the universe. In addition, the Hubble's images are extremely stable compared to those taken by ground-based telescopes, where the field of view can be affected by a constant stream of images. changing atmospheres and turbulence with constant distortion.

For these advantages alone, Hubble is a major advance in scientific astronomical observation. In the future, although Hubble has had many successors, it is clear that one can only have one enlightened teacher, so Even with many successors in orbit, Hubble's contribution to humanity, and to cosmology in particular, is indelible.

This is the Lagoon Nebula, in the center of which a young star 200,000 times brighter than our Sun is active, and the dust and particle activity of the different stars in the nebula have sculpted "ridges", "holes" and other nebulous wonders!

In addition to its excellent imaging capabilities, Hubble has inspired generations of people to take a keen interest in the universe, or in astronomical science, such as Hubble's images of deep space fields, Hubble's images of Jupiter's Great Red Spot, the various nebulae and galaxies photographed on the anniversary of each week, and much more. Facing the universe, with Hubble, our doubts became interest. It was then that we also learned that the universe is far from simple as we thought, it is complex.

Lighthouses of civilization in a mysterious universe

The universe is not only immense, but also very complex and mysterious. What are we talking about that makes up the universe? People will surely reply that there are more galactic nebulae and more planets in the universe than there is sand on Earth. In fact, less than 5% of all matter in the universe is visible, which means that the remaining 95% is invisible to us and cannot be seen. Directly observed, they are dark matter and dark energy.

The Pillars of Creation is one of Hubble's masterpieces, and the Hubble Space Telescope has captured many stunning images of the universe. In 2015, Hubble recreated images of the Pillars of Creation, which are home to stars.

Before the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers and cosmologists were helpless against dark matter and dark energy, but with the Hubble Excellent level of imaging, astronomers have discovered traces of dark matter and dark energy. Astronomers have been using Hubble to observe dozens of fixed galaxies for long periods of time and have found that these galaxies are surrounded by dark matter cluster structures. In other words, all the galaxies are embedded in dark matter particles.

Dark matter itself consists of slow-moving particles that come together to form a unified structure. The mass of the dark matter particles around the entire Milky Way galaxy is no more than the mass of a commercial airplane, but it is these particles that can influence galaxies! of movement and shape, and can even make two galaxies collide, like two ships in the water, the water won't move fast, but it will After 3 billion years of slow flow, flowing (Andromeda and the Milky Way are used here for comparison), the two ships will collide. Dark matter and dark energy are invisible to us, but with the excellent imaging capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope, we can see them How it affects the behavior of galaxies to determine some of the parameters of dark matter.

This is Hubble's photograph of the Pismis 24 cluster, which lies at the core of the nebula NGC 6357. Part of the nebula is ionized by the youngest stars (blue), which emit intense ultraviolet radiation that heats the cluster's surroundings. of gas, which creates the cavity structure

There are many mysterious structures in the universe, and we have our next mystery visitor, the black hole. The black hole is also a mysterious structure of the universe, the black hole itself is invisible and Hubble can not take pictures, but Hubble can take pictures of the black hole! Press the shutter as it swallows celestial structures. Black holes have X-ray jets near the speed of light and suction disk structures that are observable as they swallow some celestial bodies . In addition, supermassive black holes are generally located at the center of galaxies, and with Hubble's data and observations, we have found that there are generally two More than one black hole.

Hubble has also discovered a number of binary black holes (two or more black holes combined to create a black hole), which shows that while black holes are mysterious, they are It's also observable, and the different black holes eating each other will also make the black holes bigger. Hubble has also observed the evolution of some super-giant stars, which brings the entire lifeline of black holes to life. To understand a structure in the universe, we must understand its past and present, including its origin, evolution, behavior, and end.

In the image above, we show Hubble's actual observations of the gas density of the black hole sections at the center of two galaxies. Below we show computer simulations of the star-forming regions in two galaxies. How it affects other gases falling into the black hole.

A leader in modern astronomy

The universe is mysterious and beautiful, and we have many baryonic objects (observable objects) in addition to shy ones like black holes and dark matter. ) can observe. The Hubble Space Telescope has opened up a new, uncharted territory in the exploration of the universe. From the early 1990s to the present, astronomers have taken more than a million pictures using Hubble's optical primary mirror, which has Many galaxies and other celestial structures are one of the most beautiful, magnificent, and exciting aspects of the universe. But we know from Hubble's observations that galaxies in the universe have evolved from smaller, more primitive combinations of stars....

Not only does Hubble see wide and clearly, it sees far, and it seems to take us back to where it all began...in 1995. Astronomers used Hubble to observe a small patch of sky that appeared to be nothing for a million seconds, and at the end astronomers had A new harvest. Hubble captures the faint light of countless galaxies, many so distant that it has taken billions of years for their light to reach Earth. So we look at the universe as if we were in a corridor of time, with galaxies so far away from us that their light is billions of years away. And the further away it is.

This image was taken by Hubble's Advanced Survey Camera, which is the ZwCl 0024 + 1652 cluster of galaxies. The image shows us the faint light of distant galaxies, distorted by the cluster's strong gravitational field.

Why is that? Using data from the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have confirmed that the universe is expanding, and not only that, it's expanding at an accelerating rate. Last year, the latest measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope confirmed that the universe is expanding 9 percent faster than expected. We know that astronomers can predict whether the luminosity of a Cepheid star will be brighter or dimmer, so astronomers can use Hubble to observe the Cepheid star. Measuring the distances between galaxies. The team of astronomers analyzed the light of 70 father-making variable stars in the nearby galaxy Large Magellanic Cloud and used a new method to capture the These snapshots of stars.

The Hubble telescope can usually only observe one star every 90 minutes, and astronomers use a new method called DASH shift observed the father-making star clusters, allowing the team to observe twelve father-making stars in the same amount of time. With these new data, astronomers were able to consolidate the basis of the expansion distance of the universe, which can be used to determine the speed of the expansion of the universe. , it is also possible to calculate the rate of change in the Hubble constant over time, and thus discover that the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate.

This is an ultra-deep-field image taken in 2014, a composite image taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera and Third Wide Field Camera 3. This image, taken 841 times by Hubble, contains about 10,000 galaxies, the oldest of which are about 12 billion years old

Observing Saturn's auroras in the inner solar system, studying Neptune's storms, exploring Jupiter's Great Red Spot, understanding cosmological issues such as the expansion of the universe, observing the evolution of galaxies, looking for traces of dark matter and dark energy, exploring the mysteries of black holes, understanding the early universe and studying the future outcome of the universe, and much more... Hubble's original budget of $400 million plus all those years of repair and maintenance work was more than $10 billion when it was grounded for several years due to a shuttle accident.

The future obsessive and lonely path of discovery (self-explanatory)

In the face of the universe, humans are obsessed with exploring the universe, even if we are dozens of times over budget, because it's our dream and far away. . It's a really difficult, laborious, and probably unsuccessful path to take, with an unimaginable number of steps from design to operation of a space telescope. But even so we still have to explore the universe, because we know that in the future the human footprint will be all over the solar system.

Here's Hubble's photograph of the spiral galaxy UGC 2885 on its 30th anniversary (this January), a galaxy much larger than our own Milky Way. 2.5 times as wide, 10 times the number of stars in the galaxy

Humans are actually very small, and when I see Hubble or any other space telescope, I always think of WALL-E, which has been cleaning up on Earth alone for years. He is curious about the new spacecraft and risks being blasted by the flames of the ship's engines to find out more about it. The love of it all. Hubble and other space telescopes, alone in orbit for 30 years, have made millions of observations in that time, circling the The Earth's 547-km orbit revolves more than 500,000 times, providing Earth astronomers with more than 10 terabytes of data each year. Hubble is the fruit of human wisdom and a beacon of civilization for all of humanity in the age of cosmic observation.

In the future, this path of exploration will continue. And you, Hubble, will be an indelible new star in the history of human space observation, in advance to wish you a happy 30th birthday.


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